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PostPosted: Wed Feb 13, 2019 5:00 pm 
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It was on this day, Feb. 13, 1633, that Galileo was called to Rome on a charge of heresy, supposedly for promoting the Copernican theory ( borrowed from Aristarchus ) of Heliocentrism.
In actual fact, it wasn't heliocentrism per se that was the issue, it was the way that Galileo had worded his "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Systems of the World", stating his case for heliocentrism
One of the characters in the Dialogue was given the name of Simplicio ( Simpleton ), who represented Geocentrism. The ludicrous arguments this character gave for geocentrism were the ones Pope Urban V111 had given in genial discussions, some of them word for word.with Galileo.
The Pope was enraged at being portrayed as an idiot, and it was this, the ridiculing of the Pope, that caused Galileo to stand trail on a charge of heresy. Galileo's enemies were only too glad to fan the flames, he had a reputation for being arrogant or cantankerous ( or both! ).
When Copernicus produced his book "On the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres", supporting heliocentrism ( it gets so bogged down as to become unreadable ), Pope Clement V11 invited Copernicus to Rome to discuss his book. Copernicus declined, but not through fear of persecution - it was ridicule that the Polish Canon feared. Heliocentrism was being openly taught by the Jesuits, but considering the state of knowledge at the time, as an hypothesis. At the trial, Galileo was forbidden to teach heliocentrism and was sentenced to house arrest.

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Last edited by brian livesey on Fri Feb 15, 2019 3:47 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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PostPosted: Wed Feb 13, 2019 5:19 pm 
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Things are just as bad or worse now in some parts of the world, if one does not obey those in charge.

What about the internet bullies who cause devastation?

Not much changes in human behaviour.

But, hey, tomorrow is all about love. :)

Regards,
David


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PostPosted: Thu Feb 14, 2019 8:32 pm 
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Brian
Personally I've always been a fan of Aristarchus myself.
I vaguely recall reading in the past (although I'm not quite that ancient really) that Copernicus's work wasn't actually published until Copernicus was on his death bed (or maybe - already dead !). Furthermore Copernicus never referred to Aristarchus even though Copernicus had pinched Aristarchus's idea.
Best of luck from Cliff (PS - incidentally I personally think the Universe (which includes everything, originated in the Northern Power House and Manchester is the exact Centre of the Universe).


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PostPosted: Wed Feb 20, 2019 10:01 am 
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A point worth making about Aristarchus is that his heliocentrism was founded on mysticism not science. Of the four elements in the Aristotelian system - Earth, Air, Fire and Water -, Earth was the basest element and Fire the purest.
Because our Earth is made of matter, it was considered corruptible and was placed at the centre ( lowest ) point in the Universe. On the other hand, Aristarchus considered that Fire, the noblest of the elements, should take up the centre of the Universe, so, breaking with convention, he placed the Sun at the centre.

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PostPosted: Fri Feb 22, 2019 6:11 pm 
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Brian
I think you do Aristarchus a bit of injustice.
I personally have very limited real scientific understanding of very much.
I was brain washed with so called physics & chemistry at school enabling me to get O levels. When a bit older I got to admire Einstein but never got round to learning vector calculus which remains mystical to me but I still like Einstein - the best next thing to Aristarchus. From what I vaguely recall Copernicus didn't broadcast his own ideas until he was on his way out but never acknowledged Aristarchus at all. I was a wireless mechanic when doing national service in the Army & think in those 2 years I think I did eventually get one wireless working by trial & error or perhaps just good luck (a la Aristarchus).
Best of luck from Cliff


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PostPosted: Mon Feb 25, 2019 11:10 am 
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As you said Cliff, the book that Copernicus produced wasn't available until he'd died. However, he did write a letter to Pope Paul 111, concerning his heliocentrism. It was the letter that prompted the Pope to invite Copernicus to Rome to discuss the matter. Copernicus declined for fear of being ridiculed.
After Copernicus's death, the Catholic Church embraced heliocentrism. The Protestants, however, stayed with geocentrism and this pressured the Catholic Church to revert to it. As more accurate data came in, the Protestants accepted heliocentrism, but the Catholic Church continued to hold to geocentrism, until it abandoned it in the early Nineteenth Century.
Neither Aristarchus nor Copernicus had instruments that were accurate enough to prove heliocentrism.

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