Sunspots and stable nuclear fusion reactors

The big problems of nuclear fusion research are:

Nobody has seen a stable nuclear fusion reactor, we do not know what a stable nuclear reactor looks alike; we even have not a concept about stable nuclear fusion reactors.

It is obvious that the sun is the only place can we find a stable nuclear fusion reactor.

In fact, sunspots are one kind of standard stable nuclear fusion reactors.

But, it is very difficult for us to understand that sunspots are stable nuclear fusion reactors.

Then, how can we know that sunspots are stable nuclear fusion reactors?

Every sunspot has a magnetic field. The magnetic field of a circular sunspot is similar to the magnetic field at the end of a long solenoid.

Some astronomers such as Hale and Cowling want to use circular electric currents to simulate the magnetic fields of the sunspots.

The circular electric currents are very large (1,000,000,000,000 Amperes for middle size circular sunspots), if we use a long solenoid to simulate the magnetic field of a circular sunspot.

In nuclear fusion experiments such as Z-pinch experiments, hollow cylindrical plasmas (a long solenoid) with large circular electric currents will pinch and form high temperature high density hollow cylindrical plasmas, and nuclear fusion reactions will happen in these plasmas.

So, strong stable magnetic fields of the sunspots just mean that there are stable nuclear fusion reactions in the sunspots.

But there is a problem, who produce the large circular electric currents of the long solenoids of the sunspots?

Astronomers think that sunspots are magnetic flux tubes, because nobody knows how to produce these large circular electric currents of long solenoids.

In high temperature plasmas, large circular electric currents just mean that large number of electrons, protons and ions move circularly in different direction or in same direction with different speed.

According to Newton’s three laws of motion (notice: Do not use Euler equation and Navier-Stokes equation of fluid mechanics), we need a centripetal force to drive the electrons, protons and ions move circularly.

But there are problems:

There are different kinds of centripetal forces, so what kind of the centripetal force drives these electrons, protons and ions of plasmas move circularly? Can this centripetal force describe all the plasmas motions of the sunspots (include Evershed flow)? Who produce this centripetal force?

## Stable nuclear fusion reactors and sunspots

**Moderators:** joe, Brian, Guy Fennimore

Sunspots must be similar to atomic bombs, hydrogen bombs and hurricanes, if sunspots are stable nuclear fusion reactors, why? Because all of them release huge amount of heats continuously or in pulse manner, they are heats phenomena.

Then, what are similarity and differences among atomic bombs, hydrogen bombs, hurricanes and sunspots?

(1) Eyes

The umbrae of the sunspots are just the eyes of the sunspots, like the eyes of hurricanes.

(2) Eyewalls and magnetic fields

The magnetic fields of circular sunspots can be simulated by long solenoids with large circular electric currents. These long solenoids are just eyewalls of the sunspots, like eyewalls of the hurricanes. There are heavy rains in the eyewalls of the hurricanes; but there are large circular electric currents and nuclear fusion reactions in the eyewalls of the sunspots.

(3) Evershed flow

Atomic bombs, hydrogen bombs, hurricanes and sunspots all have Evershed kind of outflows. But velocity of the Evershed flow of the sunspot is very large (1-9km/s).

(4) Low temperature

The temperatures of the sunspots and some mushroom clouds of hydrogen bombs are lower than that of their surrounding atmosphere.

(5) Latitude distribution and periodical cycles.

Hurricanes are similar to sunspots in latitude distribution and periodical variations of numbers.

(6) Energy

Atomic bombs, hydrogen bombs, hurricanes and sunspots all are heat phenomena.

Conclusion:

Some astronomers such as John Herschel and Hale think that sunspots are cyclone vortices of the sun.

In fact, sunspots are just hurricanes of the sun, and these hurricanes have large circular electric currents and nuclear fusion reactions in their eyewalls.

So sunspots are one kind of standard stable nuclear fusion reactors.

The complex structures and motions of atomic bombs, hydrogen bombs, hurricanes and sunspots are caused by heats, so heats can produce some kinds of forces directly (Notice: Do not use Euler equation and Navier-Stokes equation of fluid mechanics). Certainly, electromagnetic forces play a role in eyewalls of the sunspots.

But there is a problem: how to describe atomic bombs, hydrogen bombs, hurricanes and sunspots mathematically?